Answer: The Law Covenant was made between God with Israel at Mt. Sinai following Israel’s deliverance from Egyptian bondage. The Law was made 430 years after God gave the covenant to Abraham.
The Law was designed to keep Israel separate from the surrounding world and it was a schoolmaster or tutor to lead them to Christ. (Gal. 3:24) When God gave the Law to Moses, he stated in Ex. 19:5,6 (NASB): “‘Now then, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine; (6) and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel.” If Israel followed the Law it would help them as a nation become the spiritual seed of the Abrahamic promise (“stars of the heavens”) and be associated with Jesus in heaven ruling over the rest of the world of mankind in his earthly kingdom.
The Law, through its commandments, also revealed to Israel what God’s standard of perfect obedience was. If a man could keep the Law, it proved they were perfect and by keeping the Law perfectly, an individual could live forever. However, Israel could not keep the Law and hence, it became (1) an additional condemnation for them and (2) it demonstrated that they needed a savior.
When Jesus came at his first advent, he was able to keep the Law showing his perfection, that he was the promised Messiah and worthiness to be a ransom for father Adam. However, the Jews at Jesus first advent did not recognize this, they rejected Jesus as their Messiah and as a result, were cast out off by Jesus and God and consigned the punishments associated with failing to keep the Law.
The Law particularly through its tabernacle arrangement was a shadow of good things to come. Its sacrifices pictured the sacrifices of Jesus, the church and the ancient worthies. Its priesthood pictured the sacrificial priesthood of Jesus and the glorified, spiritual priesthood of Jesus and the church, after the order of Melchizadek. Its Levites pictured the church of the first-born. Its ceremonies such as the consecration of the priesthood, the various sin-offerings, the day of Atonement and its feasts all pictured different aspects of God’s plan of salvation.
Because of Israel’s unfaithfulness under the Law, God cast them off until He makes with them a New Covenant in Christ’s earthly kingdom.
For more information, please see the related booklets and videos listed below:
The Law Covenant
God Has a Plan
Three Great Feasts Unto the Lord
Gods Plan For Man