The Jewish Age (E on the above chart) began with the death of Jacob in 1813 BC. We remember that God had changed Jacob’s name to Israel which means “a prince of God” (KJV margin) after Jacob had wrestled with the angel. (Gen. 32:24-30) That name passed onto to Jacob’s 12 sons and they became the nucleus of Abraham’s descendants to whom God had promised with the land of Canaan forever. (Gen. 13:14-17)
When Jacob died, he and his sons had already moved to Egypt due to a famine in the land of Canaan. (Gen. 46:1-7) Jacob and his descendants stayed in Egypt 400 years and became oppressed by a Pharaoh who knew not Joseph. (Gen. 15:13; Ex. 1:8-14) God raised up Moses to be His representative and then through ten (10) plagues, forced the Egyptians to let the Israelites go finally destroying the Egyptian army in the Red Sea and thereby, completing Israel’s deliverance from Egypt.
While in the wilderness, God established His (Law) covenant with Israel. He gave them His law with Moses becoming the mediator of this arrangement. (Ex. 20:18,19) God had Israel build a place of worship (tabernacle), established the Levitical priesthood and generally, led Israel from the wilderness of Sinai until Jesus first advent.
The Israelites who left Egyptian had insufficient faith to enter the promised land and so God punished them by forcing them to spend 40 years wandering in the wilderness while that generation died. (Num. 14:22-39) Then, under Joshua God led the nation into Canaan conquering the tribes that lived there and Israel took possession of the land. (Jos. 1:2-9)
God led Israel for a time through judges such as Joshua, Gideon and Samuel. After the nation complained, God allowed them to be ruled by kings beginning with Saul, David and Solomon. After Solomon’s death, the nation broke into two parts, Israel (10 tribes) and Judah (2 tribes). Most of the kings that ruled over Israel and Judah were evil and did not follow the Lord’s law or commandments. A few, such as Josiah and Hezekiah were righteous. Eventually, due to Israel’s unfaithfulness to God and His covenant, Israel (10 tribe kingdom) went into captivity under Assyria and Judah (2 tribe kingdom) went into captivity under Babylon.
The Babylonian captivity began the seven (7) times of punishment that God promised in Leviticus 23:13-46 if Israel rejected His leading and commandments, which they did. Still, God ultimately promised to re-gather the nation and fulfill the promises He had made to their fathers.
At the appointed time, God sent His only begotten son, Jesus, to Israel as their Messiah. This coming had been prophesied and the nation was in expectation. (Isa. 53; Zech. 9:9) God was really extending to the nation the opportunity to become the spiritual seed (“stars of heaven”) of the Abrahamic promise. God had promised to Moses, “‘Now then, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine; (6) and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel.” (Ex. 19:5,6 NASB)
However, Jesus did not come as the nation as expected and through their leaders, they rejected Jesus. As a result, God cast off the nation allowing Jerusalem to be destroyed by the Romans and the people to be scattered until the days of Jesus second advent. (Matt. 23:37-39)
For additional information please see our related booklets and videos below.
Israel in History and Prophecy
The Law Covenant
God’s Miraculous Timepiece
Future of Israel and the World
The Miracle of the Fig Tree
This Land is Mine
A Royal Nation
My People, My Land With My Whole Heart and Soul