The Patriarchal age (D on the above chart) began when Noah and his family exited the ark. Until the death of Jacob, God dealt with individuals such as Noah, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. To Noah, God gave the rainbow covenant that He would never again destroy all flesh by a flood. “‘I establish My covenant with you; and all flesh shall never again be cut off by the water of the flood, neither shall there again be a flood to destroy the earth.’ (12) God said, ‘This is the sign of the covenant which I am making between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all successive generations; (13) I set My bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and the earth.” (Gen. 9:11-13 NASB)
Later, God called Abram from the city of Ur to follow God’s leading to a land that He would show him. “Now the LORD said to Abram, ‘Go forth from your country, And from your relatives And from your father’s house, To the land which I will show you; (2) And I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; And so you shall be a blessing; (3) And I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.'” (Gen. 12:1-3 NASB)
When Abram faithfully complied, God made a covenant with Abram that would produce a seed that would bless the entire earth. He promised the land where He had led Abram to, Palestine, an everlasting possession of Abram’s descendants. Then God changed Abram and his wife Sarai’s names to Abraham and Sarah respectively. He have them, Isaac, a miracle son, when Abraham was 100 and Sarah was 90.
When Isaac was a young man, God asked Abraham in a test of obedience to sacrifice Isaac on the mountains of Moriah. Abraham sought to comply because he believed that God could raise Isaac from the dead. God’s angel stopped Abraham when he was ready to slay Isaac as God requested. In response, God confirmed his covenant with Abraham in the form of an oath. “By Myself I have sworn, declares the LORD, because you have done this thing and have not withheld your son, your only son, (17) indeed I will greatly bless you, and I will greatly multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your seed shall possess the gate of their enemies. (18) In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice.” (Gen. 22:16-18 NASB)
The covenant promises two seeds or offspring, one spiritual described by the “stars of the heaven” and one earthly described by the “sand which is on the seashore.” The spiritual seed was promised to Abraham’s son, Isaac, who pictured Jesus in his miracle birth and sacrifice. (Gen. 26:3,4) The apostle Paul tells us in Gal. 3:16 (NASB): “Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. He does not say, ‘And to seeds,’ as referring to many, but rather to one, ‘And to your seed,’ that is, Christ.” Then Paul adds that the followers of Christ are part of the spiritual seed. “If you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, heirs according to promise.” (Gal. 3:29 NASB)
The earthly seed was mentioned to Abraham’s grandson, Jacob, when during a dream he saw a ladder reaching unto heaven. “And behold, the LORD stood above it [ladder] and said, ‘I am the LORD, the God of your father Abraham and the God of Isaac; the land on which you lie, I will give it to you and to your descendants. (14)Your descendants will also be like the dust of the earth, and you will spread out to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south; and in you and in your descendants shall all the families of the earth be blessed.” This promise was passed onto Jacob’s 12 sons who formed the nucleus of the nation of Israel. Israel would be that earthly seed that spread abroad to the entire earth.
With the death of Jacob, the Patriarchal age ended and as God began dealing with nation of Israel, the Jewish age began.
For additional information on the Patriarchal Age, please the following booklets and videos.
Why God Permits Evil
God Has a Plan
Three Great Covenants
Gods Plan For Man
Abrahamic Promise, Covenant and Oath